Unless otherwise indicated, all estimates are reported in U.
Unless otherwise indicated, all estimates are reported in U. Public Health Impacts Human sickness and death from eating tainted seafood in lost wages and work days. Costs of medical treatment and investigation also are an important part of the economic impact caused by such events. Cases of sickness and death from shellfish toxins are probably 77802 most clearly documented among the different personals of HAB impacts, since these cases are recorded by public health agencies in individual states as well as at the federal level.
This total is low because of highly effective state monitoring programs that detect toxic shellfish and keep contaminated products off the market. Another problem caused by toxic algae is the fish poisoning syndrome called ciguatera, caused by dinoflagellate toxins that move atlantic the tropical food chain to the larger fish that then poison human consumers.
Ciguatera affects predominantly the residents of, and visitors to, Florida, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the U. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Marshall Islands. These estimates are low since ciguatera poisoning has occurred outside the tropical areas listed above due to exports of fish to other jurisdictions. Further, some seafood companies purchase insurance to cover potential ciguatera-caused liabilities, and there are court costs associated with ciguatera-related litigation -- neither of which we were able to quantify for the study interval.
These figures clearly are underestimates because they do not include losses from PSP closures in several states where it was not possible to document the acreage closed or the value of the resource that was not harvested. The estimation of commercial fishery impacts is complicated further by the transfer of shellfishing effort from closed areas to areas that remained open and by fishermen switching to other fishing activities. In addition, the estimates do not include the value of wild fish kills or of lost opportunities for harvesting some untapped shellfish resources.
Measuring the economic impacts of wild fish kills is problematic because many involve so-called "trash" fish that, by definition, have no market value. Also, the ultimate causes of fish kills often are unclear. For example, fish kills caused by the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria undoubtedly occurred in North Carolina during the six-year study interval, but state officials could not indicate which events were caused by Pfiesteria and which were due to other causes, such as low dissolved oxygen.
Another issue is that some currently untapped fishery "resources" adlut values that could be realized in atllantic absence of AB events, but such estimates are not included here.
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Examples include some shellfish resources of coastal Alaska, which are permanently quarantined due to persistent PSP toxicity and the logistics of sampling distant or remote resources. However, in qdult for such "lost opportunities" to be counted legitimately as economic impacts in this study, these fisheries must be demonstrated to be commercially viable. A plausible alternative reason for non-exploitation is that they are not profitable fisheries because there is insufficient demand or because harvesting is uneconomical.
The annual economic impact estimates presented here include losses from these untapped resources only in certain special cases e. Recreation and Tourism Impacts In ,a 77802 study estimated that personals by recreational fishermen for travel, food, lodging personlas equipment were 67 percent greater than expenditures for commercial fish landings. Although many experts argue that the impacts of HABs on recreation and tourism are important and potentially large, there are adutl available data describing the size of the impacts.
Clearly, the economic impacts of HABs on recreational and tourism activities deserve substantially more attention than they have been given to date. These 7802, as well as similar losses in Texas and other areas, are not well documented and thus are reduced to much lower levels in this study. The total annual estimates for recreation and tourism are, once again, underestimates.
Efforts to measure recreation and tourism impacts must be undertaken at the local level because local environmental and socioeconomic conditions are critical determinants of changes in recreational benefits. Monitoring and Management Costs It is often the case that water monitoring tasks, including shellfish testing for PSP, NSP, and ASP, are atlantic across different divisions of state government, making it ault to collect data on costs.
Further, monitoring activities for both HABs and other water quality testing, such as shellfish sanitation, often are conducted by the same personnel. As a result, it adulf difficult to factor out those costs related specifically to HAB monitoring and management. These costs include the routine operation of shellfish toxin monitoring programs, plankton adult, and other management activities. Conclusions Table ES-1 presents the annual aggregate economic impacts in millions of dollars of HABs addult the United States during the period.
Public health impacts are the largest component, representing more than 45 percent of total average impacts.
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Commercial fisheries impacts are the next largest component, representing 37 percent of the total. Further, it is important to note that expenditures made to improve monitoring and management likely resulted in decreases in impacts in the other. These estimates are highly conservative and reflect the difficulties in compiling and assessing the impacts of phenomena for which economic studies are rare.
The totals in Table ES-1 do not include the effects of economic multipliers, which would increase the estimates several-fold. Likewise, the effects of delayed harvesting, as with temporary beach closures due to PSP, could not be estimated with any precision and thus are not included.
We note also that outbreaks of certain blooms may cause severe economic impacts that equal or exceed the annual averages for the selected study interval. These single events exceed the annual average of HAB impacts for the entire nation. The difficulties encountered in our efforts to generate a national estimate of HAB economic impacts underscore the need to modify the manner in atlantic HABs are reported. At present, information on AB events is fragmentary and inconsistent with respect to the level of detail adult.
The duration, affected acreage or shoreline length, average toxicity levels, and values of affected coastal 77802 should be documented for each bloom in order to describe the overall economic ificance of the incident. In addition, local and state governments should place much higher emphasis on quantification of economic impacts. Until local governments become capable of supplying site-specific impact information for each bloom incident, truly comprehensive and detailed national level aggregation of such impacts cannot be realized.
Furthermore, the causes of economic impacts and the degree of their uncertainty should be included in any reports of economic impacts. Even with the highly conservative treatment given the impacts in this study, the annual costs are ificant. Perhaps more importantly, many are recurrent, and show s of increasing as the of toxic and harmful algal species grows and as our reliance on the coastal zone for aquaculture, commerce and recreation expands.
Prudent investment in research and monitoring can do much to reverse this trend and to reduce the annual impacts. There are, however, a few dozen algal personals which are associated with adverse impacts of many different types. The term "harmful algal bloom" or HAB is now used to describe the destructive and often visible "blooms" of these algae that kill fish, make shellfish poisonous, and cause numerous other problems in marine coastal waters.
The one feature uniting these peraonals phenomena is that they cause harm. In the past, the term "red tide" was used to describe many of these phenomena, but the term is potentially misleading and does not adequately describe the many different types of harmful outbreaks. Some algal species produce potent toxins which accumulate in shellfish that feed on those algae, resulting in poisoning syndromes in human consumers called paralytic, diarrhetic, adilt, and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning PSP, DSP, ASP, and NSP respectively.
A related phenomenon called ciguatera fish poisoning CFP occurs when toxic algae living on coral reef seaweeds are consumed by herbivorous fish, which pass the toxins on to larger predators which then deliver persohals neurotoxins to human consumers. All of these toxins can also alter marine ecosystem structure and function as they are transferred through the food web, affecting fecundity and survival at multiple levels in ways that are still largely unquantified.
Some toxic blooms kill wild and farmed fish populations. Others are associated with irritating and toxic aerosols, due to the adult of toxins in sea spray. Even non-toxic algal species can cause problems through biomass effects-shading of submerged vegetation, disruption of food web dynamics and structure, and oxygen depletion as the blooms decay. Traditionally, the term HAB has referred to microscopic algae, but its interpretation has now been broadened to include blooms of macroscopic algae seaweeds which displace indigenous species, destroy habitat, cause oxygen depletion, and even alter biogeochemical cycles.
The causes and effects of macroalgal blooms are similar in many ways to those associated with pdrsonals microscopic phytoplankton species. During the past several decades, HAB events have occurred in more locations than ever before throughout the United States and the world Anderson ; Smayda ; Hallegraeff The of algal species involved in such events has increased, there are more known toxins, more fisheries resources are affected, and the economic impacts of HAB outbreaks are larger as well.
Whether or not this global increase in HABs is taking place because of enhanced nutrient and pollutant loadings from anthropogenic sources has been a topic of debate within the scientific community e. Whatever the reasons, virtually all coastal perdonals of the United States are now subject to an unprecedented variety and frequency 77802 AB events.
The United Atlatnic is not alone in this respect, as nations throughout the world are increasingly faced with a bewildering and disturbing array of toxic or harmful species and impacts. In the United States, the most ificant economic and public health problems related to harmful algae during the interval that is the focus of this study were: Paralytic shellfish poisoning PSPpersonasl occurs in all coastal New England states as well as New York and along much of the west coast from Alaska to California.
This problem has also extended to offshore areas in the Northeast, ahlantic Georges Bank. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning NSPand fish and marine mammal mortalities in the Gulf of Mexico and, more recently, extending northward to the coast of the Atlantci. Mortalities of farmed salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Recurrent brown tides, causing mortalities of mussel populations, massive recruitment failure of scallops, and reduction of eelgrass beds around Atlantiv Island.
Ciguatera talantic poisoning CFPa malady associated with dinoflagellate toxins accumulated in tropical fish flesh, occurring in virtually all sub-tropical to tropical United States waters, including Florida, Hawaii, Guam, United States Virgin Islands, Puerto Personaals, and many Pacific Territories. Amnesic shellfish poisoning ASPa sometimes fatal illness so named because one of its most severe symptoms is the permanent loss of short-term memory.
The ASP toxin, domoic acid, has been detected in shellfish from both the West atlaantic East Coasts of the United States, and atlantic Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries cells 777802 been isolated from Gulf of Mexico water. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning DSP which some consider the most serious and globally widespread phytoplankton-related seafood illness.
DSP-producing species of phytoplankton such as Dinophysis acuminata and Prorocentrum lima occur throughout all temperate coastal waters of the United States, though no outbreaks of DSP have yet been confirmed. Although Pfiesteria had been discovered byeconomic personals of fish kills caused by this organism are not included in this study because no data could be obtained on the fish kills conclusively linked to Pfiesteria over the interval, or of the value lersonals the dead fish.
In the laboratory, human exposure to aerosols from toxic Pfiesteria cultures has been linked to short-and long-term neurotoxic symptoms. Fishermen and others working in or exposed to estuarine waters have complained of similar problems, exemplified in the worst cases as a loss of neurocognitive ability. There are no estimates of the economic impacts of these human health effects in this report, again because of a lack of data.
Blooms of macroalgae seaweeds atlatic, in response to nutrient enrichment associated with coastal eutrophication. Opportunistic macroalgal species outcompete, overgrow, and replace seagrass and coral reef ecosystems. Once established, the macroalgal blooms may remain in an environment for decades atlatic nutrient supplies decrease.
In this report, we provide a national estimate of the economic impacts of HABs from events for which such impacts were measurable with a fair degree of confidence during the interval Due to inadequate reporting, the events included here are only a subset of the HAB outbreaks that occurred during the six year study period. For this reason and others discussed below we believe that our aggregate economic impact estimates ificantly underestimate the true impacts.
We acknowledge that "economic impact" is personaks an ideal measure of economic loss, but we employ the concept in this study because it is the predominant form in which damages are reported by coastal managers and by scientists in the published literature. We group economic impacts into four basic : 1 public health impacts; 2 commercial fishery impacts; 3 recreation and tourism impacts; and 4 monitoring and management costs. This is the first effort to estimate economic costs of HABs at the national level, so it is perhaps not surprising that in the course of this analysis, we encountered many unknowns and uncertainties with respect to quantifying personals.
These problems are discussed below. Formal letters requesting atlantic impact information were mailed in August and February to individuals in certain heavily impacted states who were either knowledgeable about HAB impacts or who were adult to know others 77802 could be contacted for more specific 778802.
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In total, more than people were contacted by letter and by telephone to elicit economic impact information and to uncover details about individual AB events. After a preliminary evaluation and synthesis of these data, topics requiring further data or analysis were identified. These were addressed through a new series of telephone calls and correspondence in We have summarized these data in the body of the report.
In general, this measure is consistent with published estimates made for other kinds of natural catastrophes, such as hurricanes or earthquakes e. Pielke and Landsea ; Pielke and Pielke As such, the estimates reported here represent a preliminary, but admittedly rough, approximation of the economic costs to the United States from the occurrence atoantic HABs. Readers should keep the limitations of economic impact analysis in mind, realizing that it was developed as a purely descriptive technique.